Object Oriented programming vs Procedure oriented programming

Object-oriented programming vs Procedure-oriented programming

A program is nothing but a set of step-by-step instructions that only a computer can understand. There have different approaches to program on a computer. In technical term, there are referred to as programming paradigms. OOP(Object-oriented programming) and POP(Procedure-oriented programming) are such high-level programming paradigms that use different approaches to create a program to solve a particular problem in the less time possible. In this article, firstly we will clear the concept of OOP and POP, then will find out the differences between them.

What is Procedure Oriented Programming?

A program in a procedural language is a list of instruction where each statement tells the computer to perform the given task. It focuses on procedure/function. An algorithm is needed to perform the derived computation. Procedure Oriented Programming contains step by step procedure to execute. When a program becomes larger, it is divided into the function and each function has clearly defined purpose. The problems get decomposed into small parts and then each part solve by one or more functions. The major procedural programming languages first appeared circa in 1960, including Fortran, ALGOL, COBOL, and BASIC. Pascal and C were published closer to the 1970s, while Ada was released in 1980. And Go, published in 2009, is a modern procedural language.

Features

  • Large problems are divided into smaller programs known as functions.

  • Most of the functions share global data.

  • Data move openly around the system from function to function.

  • Functions transfer data from one form to another.

  • Employs top-down approach in program designing.

What is Object Oriented Programming?

Object-oriented programming(OOP) is a programming model constructed around objects. This model compartmentalizes data into objects and describes object contents and behavior through the declaration of classes. Object-oriented programming allows for simplified programming. Its benefits include reusability, refactoring, extensibility, maintenance, and efficiency. The main aim of OOP is to bind the data all together and the functions operate on them only. OOP is used to mean almost any modern programming distinct from systems programming, assembly programming, functional programming, or database programming. One of the great benefits of OOP is that of scalability, with objects and definitions having no finite limitation. If a bug appears in a linear code, it can be translated into a system and create masses of hard-to-trace errors. OOP languages are Java, the C-family of languages,VB.NET and Python.

Features

  • Emphasis on data rather than procedure.

  • Programs are divided into small parts called object.

  • Data and related functions stay tied in classes and are secured as they can’t be accessed by external functions.

  • Data Type can be created based on the necessity.

  • Objects may communicate with each other through functions.

  • New data and functions can be added easily whenever necessary.

  • Follows bottom-up approach in program design.

  • A class can be modified to create another one.

  • System size can also be modified easily.

  • Multiple Programmer System Design is easy using OOP concept.

  • The complexity can be reduced.

Now, let’s find out the differences between POP and OOP

  • POP deals with algorithms, and OOP deals with data.

  • Functions or algorithms get more importance than data in POP. In contrast, data gets more importance than functions in OOP.

  • In POP, programs are divided into functions. In OOP, programs are divided into objects.

  • Every function contains different data in POP. But in OOP, the data and functions of each individual object act like a single unit.

  • The main focus of POP on how to get the task done and it follows the flowchart to get the task done. OOP’s main focus is on data security as only the objects of a class are allowed to access the attributes or function of a class.

  • To add new data and function in POP is not so easy. OOP provides an easy way to add new data and function.

  • In POP,  data gets passed from one function to another. But data never get passed from one object to another in OOP.

  • There is no concept of inheritance in POP whereas, OOP supports inheritance which allows using the attribute and functions of other class by inheriting it.

  • POP follows a top-down approach, Where OOP follows a bottom-up approach.

  • In POP, there is no specific accessing mode to access attributes or functions in the program whereas, in OOP there are three accessing modes such as public, private, and protected. That is used as an accessing share to access attributes or functions.

  • OOP provides data hiding, data associated with the program is secure. But POP does not provide any data hiding methods, therefore, the data is less secure.

  • In OOP, overloading is possible in the form of function overloading and operator overloading. In POP, overloading is not possible.

  • There is no concept of virtual classes in POP whereas, in OOP the virtual functions supports polymorphism.

  • In POP, most of the functions shared globally. In OOP, the data member of the class can be accessed through the member functions of the class.

  • OOP needs more memory than POP.

  • FORTRAN, Pascal, C, VB, COBOL, etc. are used by POP. And C++, Java, VB.NET, C#.NET, etc. are used by OOP.

 

Conclusion

OOP corrects the flaws of POP by introducing the concept of “object” and “classes”. The idea is to solve complicated tasks using programming with less code. While an object-oriented program depends mainly upon data rather than the algorithm. And a procedure-oriented program follows a step-by-step approach to solve a problem.

OOP has a little edge over POP on many fronts such as data security, ease of use, accessibility, operator overloading, and more. It enhances automatic initialization and clear-up of objects and makes possible to create multiple instances of the object without any interference. So, we can say that the flaws of POP arise the need of OOP. Hope you like this article. Please share this article in your circle. Thank you!

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