Various kind of protocols in computer network

Types of network protocol

When we talking about the Internet we often mention only of the World Wide Web. Actually, the Web is one of several ways to retrieve information from the Internet. These different types of Internet connections are known as network protocols. A network protocol defines rules and conventions for communication between network devices.  Network protocols include mechanisms for devices to identify and make connections with each other, as well as formatting rules that specify how data is packaged into messages sent and received. Some protocols also support message ​acknowledgment and data compression designed for reliable and/or high-performance network communication. We would never be able to communicate worldwide if there were no ‘standards’ governing the way we communicate and the way our machines treat data. These standards are sets of rules called Network Protocol. There are so many different types of network protocols existence. In this article, we will discuss the types of network protocol.

So, let's find out types of network protocol -

TCP

Transmission control protocol is used for communication over a network. In TCP data is broken down into small packets and then sent to the destination. However, IP is making sure packets are transmitted to the right address.

Internet Protocol (IP)

IP is also working with TCP. It is an addressing Protocol. IP addresses packets route them and show different nodes and network Unless it reaches its right destination. The IP protocol is developed in 1970.

HTTP

HTTP is used to transfer a hypertext between two or more computers. Hypertext is the text that is coded using the language called HTML. HTML codes are used to create links. This link may be in any format such as text or graphics. HTTP is based on the Client/server principles. HTTP allows a client to establish a connection with a server and make a request. The server accepts the connection initiated by the client and send back the response. An HTTP request identifies the resources that the client is interested it and tells the server what action to take on the resource.

Ethernet

Ethernet is a most important for LAN communication. Ethernet transmits the data in digital packets. If any computer wants to use this protocol they should contain an Ethernet Network Interface Card (NIC). The card is implemented with a unique address code fixed in the microchip.

SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol)

Simple Network Management Protocol is a TCP/IP protocol for monitoring networks and network components. SNMP uses small utility programs called agents to monitor behavior and traffic on the network, in order to gather statistical data. These agents can be loaded onto managed devices such as hubs, NIC's, servers, routers, and bridges. The gathered data is stored in a MIB (management information base). To collect the information in a usable form, a management program console polls these agents and downloads the information from their MIB's, which then can be displayed as graphs, charts and sent to a database program to be analyzed.

POP

The most common protocol for receiving mail is Post Office Protocol (POP). It is now in version 3 so it is called POP3. Email clients such as Outlook Express require an address for a POP3 server before they can read mail. The SMTP and POP3 servers may or may not be the same address.

FTP

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) lives up to its name and provides a method for copying files over a network from one computer to another. More generally, it provides for some simple file management on the contents of a remote computer. It is an old protocol and is used less than it was before the World Wide Web came along. Today, its primary use is uploading files to a Web site. It can also be used for downloading from the Web but, more often than not, downloading is done via HTTP.

Gopher

Gopher offers downloadable files with some content description to make it easier to find the file you need. The files are arranged on the remote computer in a hierarchical manner, much like the files on your computer's hard drive is arranged. This protocol isn't widely used anymore, but you can still find some operational gopher sites.

Telnet

You can connect to and use a remote computer program by using the telnet protocol. Generally, you would telnet into a specific application housed on a serving computer that would allow you to use that application as if it were on your own computer. Again, using this protocol requires special software.

FDDI

Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) is a network protocol that is used primarily to interconnect two or more local area networks, often over large distances. The access method used by FDDI involves token-passing. FDDI uses a dual ring physical topology. Transmission normally occurs on one of the rings; however, if a break occurs, the system keeps information moving by automatically using portions of the second ring to create a new complete ring. A major advantage of FDDI is high speed. It operates over fiber optic cable at 100 Mbps.

NFS (Network File System)

Network File System (NFS) is a distributed file system that allows users to access files and directories located on remote computers and treat those files and directories as if they were local.

SMB (Server Message Block)

A file-sharing protocol designed to allow networked computers to transparently access files that reside on remote systems over a variety of networks. The SMB protocol defines a series of commands that pass information between computers. SMB uses four message types: session control, file, printer, and message. It is mainly used by Microsoft Windows-equipped computers. SMB works through a client-server approach, where a client makes specific requests and the server responds accordingly.

DNS

TCP/IP networks communicate with hosts using their IP addresses. It would be very difficult for someone to have to memorize the different IP addresses for the hosts they want to connect to on the network. A Domain Name Service (DNS) makes it easier to identify a host by a domain name. A domain name uses words rather than numbers to identify Internet hosts.

HTTPS (Hypertext Transfer Protocol Secure)

HTTP is for Web sites using additional security features such as certificates. HTTPS is used when Web transactions are required to be secure. HTTPS uses a certificate based technology such as VeriSign. Certificate-based transactions offer a mutual authentication between the client and the server. Mutual authentication ensures the server of the client identity and ensures the client of the server identity. HTTPS, in addition to using certificate-based authentication, encrypts all data packets sent during a session. Because of the encryption, confidential user information cannot be compromised. To use HTTPS, a Web site must purchase a certificate from a third-party vendor such as VeriSign, CertCo, United States Postal Service, or other certificate providers. When the certificate is issued to a Website from a third-party vendor, the Web site is using trusted communication with the client. The communication is trusted because the third party is not biased toward either the Website or the client.

LPD (Line Printer Daemon)

LPD is the primary UNIX printing protocol used to submit jobs to the printer. The LPR component initiates commands such as "print waiting jobs," "receive a job," and "send queue state," and the LPD component in the print server responds to them. The most common implementations of LPD are in the official BSD UNIX operating system and the LPRng project.

ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network)

Integrated Services Digital Network adapters can be used to send voice, data, audio, or video over standard telephone cabling. ISDN adapters must be connected directly to a digital telephone network. ISDN adapters are not actually modems, since they neither modulate nor demodulate the digital ISDN signal. Like standard modems, ISDN adapters are available both as internal devices that connect directly to a computer's expansion bus and as external devices that connect to one of a computer's serial or parallel ports.

Simple mail transport Protocol (SMTP)

This protocol is used for sending and distributing outgoing EMail. SMTP is a standard electronic-mail protocol that handles the sending of mail from one SMTP to another SMTP server. To accomplish the transport, the SMTP server has its own MX (mail exchanger) record in the DNS database that corresponds to the domain for which it is configured to receive mail.

X.25

X.25 is a network layer protocol that runs across both synchronous and asynchronous physical circuits, providing a lot of flexibility for your connection options. X.25 was actually developed to run across an unreliable medium. It provides error detection and correction, as well as flow control, at both the data link layer (by LAPB) and the network layer (by X.25).

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)

UDP uses a best-effort delivery system, similar to how first class and lower postal services of the Indian Postal Service work. With a first-class letter (postcard), you place the destination address and put it in your mailbox, and hope that it arrives at the destination.

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol)

ICMP provides network diagnostic functions and error reporting. One of the most used IP commands is the Packet Internet Gopher (PING) command. When a host PINGS another client, it sends an ICMP ECHO request, and the receiving host responds with an ICMP ECHO REPLY. PING checks network connectivity on clients and routers. ICMP also provides a little network help for routers. When a router is being overloaded with route requests, the router sends a source quench message to all clients on the network, instructing them to slow their data requests to the router.

SFTP (Secure File Transfer Protocol)

SSH File Transfer Protocol or SFTP is a network protocol that provides file transfer and manipulation functionality over any reliable data stream.

SSH (Secure Shell)

is a program for logging in to and executing commands on a remote machine. It provides secure encrypted communications between two untrusted hosts over an insecure network. X11 connections and arbitrary TCP/IP ports can also be forwarded over the secure channel. When SSH connects and logs in to a specified computer, the user must prove his/her identity to the remote machine which is transmitted across the connection using one of three forms of data encryption. This process makes SSH impervious to Internet eavesdroppers who might otherwise steal account information.

NTP (Network Time Protocol)

The Network Time Protocol is used to synchronize the time of a computer client or server to another server or reference time source, such as a radio or satellite receiver or modem. It provides accuracy's typically within a millisecond on LANs and up to a few tens of milliseconds on WANs.

SCP (Secure Copy Protocol)

Secure Copy or SCP is a means of securely transferring computer files between a local and a remote host or between two remote hosts, using the Secure Shell (SSH) protocol. The protocol itself does not provide authentication and security; it expects the underlying protocol, SSH, to secure this. The SCP protocol implements file transfers only. It does so by connecting to the host using SSH and there executes an SCP server (SCP). The SCP server program is typically the very same program as the SCP client.

IGMP (Internet Group Multicast Protocol)

The Internet Group Management Protocol is a communications protocol used to manage the membership of Internet Protocol multicast groups. IGMP is used by IP hosts and adjacent multicast routers to establish multicast group memberships. It is an integral part of the IP multicast specification, like ICMP for unicast connections. IGMP can be used for online video and gaming and allows the more efficient use of resources when supporting these uses.

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